Optimal Control for Switched Systems


OCS2 Toolbox

Build Status


OCS2 is a C++ toolbox tailored for Optimal Control for Switched Systems (OCS2). The toolbox provides an efficient implementation of the following algorith

  • SLQ: Continuous-time domin DDP
  • iLQR: Discrete-time domain DDP
  • SQP: Multiple-shooting algorithm based on HPIPM
  • PISOC: Path integral stochatic optimal control

OCS2 handles general path constraints through Augmented Lagrangian or relaxed barrier methods. To facilitate the application of OCS2 in robotic tasks, it provides the user with additional tools to set up the system dynamics (such as kinematic or dynamic models) and cost/constraints (such as self-collision avoidance and end-effector tracking) from a URDF model. The library also provides an automatic differentiation tool to calculate derivatives of the system dynamics, constraints, and cost. To facilitate its deployment on robotic platforms, the OCS2 provides tools for ROS interfaces. The toolbox’s efficient and numerically stable implementations in conjunction with its user-friendly interface have paved the way for employing it on numerous robotic applications with limited onboard computation power.

For more information refer to the project's Documentation Page

  • Extremely slow execution of planned path after upgrade latest (Sep 30, 2022) packages

    Extremely slow execution of planned path after upgrade latest (Sep 30, 2022) packages

    After I upgraded the packages on my system (Ubuntu 20.04, ROS Noetic) using sudo apt upgrade, the execution of the planned path visualized in Rviz by launching (I didn't test all, but probably all) robotic examples (such as Mabi-Mobile, Kinova Jaco2, Clearpath Ridgeback with UR-5) becomes extremely slow.

    Please note that:

    1. Although before I was developing in separate branch; after I had this issue, I created another catkin workspace and installed the main branch and all necessary packages according to the instructions. The issue I report here is based on the latest main branch on ocs2.
    2. I also tested to run these examples in another computer without these upgrades (I was syncing two computers daily basis so the only differences between them are those upgrades) and there was no issue on that one.

    Unfortunately, I could not narrow down which pkg upgrade(s) caused this, but I will include these packages below, hoping that you have a better insight on this weird issue.

    Packages that I upgraded (automatically) today (Sep 30, 2022):

    google-chrome-stable=106.0.5249.61-1 firefox=104.0+build3-0ubuntu0.20.04.1 firefox-locale-en=104.0+build3-0ubuntu0.20.04.1 libsdformat9-dev:amd64=9.8.0-1~focal sdformat9-sdf=9.8.0-1~focal libsdformat9:amd64=9.8.0-1~focal ros-noetic-genmsg=0.5.16-1focal.20210423.222705 ros-noetic-genpy=0.6.15-1focal.20210423.222823 ros-noetic-message-runtime=0.4.13-1focal.20210423.222947 ros-noetic-gencpp=0.6.5-1focal.20210423.222749 ros-noetic-geneus=3.0.0-1focal.20210423.222918 ros-noetic-genlisp=0.4.18-1focal.20210423.222735 ros-noetic-gennodejs=2.0.2-1focal.20210423.222929 ros-noetic-message-generation=0.4.1-1focal.20210423.223101 ros-noetic-rosbuild=1.15.8-1focal.20210726.192137 ros-noetic-rosconsole=1.14.3-1focal.20210727.062322 ros-noetic-std-msgs=0.5.13-1focal.20210423.223321 ros-noetic-rosgraph-msgs=1.11.3-1focal.20210423.224118 ros-noetic-roscpp=1.15.14-1focal.20220106.233030 ros-noetic-hardware-interface=0.19.5-1focal.20220106.235702 ros-noetic-controller-interface=0.19.5-1focal.20220106.235928 ros-noetic-actionlib-msgs=1.13.1-1focal.20210423.225113 ros-noetic-geometry-msgs=1.13.1-1focal.20210423.223732 ros-noetic-trajectory-msgs=1.13.1-1focal.20210423.224726 ros-noetic-control-msgs=1.5.2-1focal.20210423.225159 ros-noetic-rospy=1.15.14-1focal.20220106.233657 ros-noetic-pluginlib=1.13.0-1focal.20210727.062753 ros-noetic-rosbag-storage=1.15.14-1focal.20220106.234146 ros-noetic-std-srvs=1.11.3-1focal.20210423.223330 ros-noetic-topic-tools=1.15.14-1focal.20220106.234130 ros-noetic-rosbag=1.15.14-1focal.20220106.234447 ros-noetic-rosmsg=1.15.14-1focal.20220106.234759 ros-noetic-rosservice=1.15.14-1focal.20220106.234935 ros-noetic-dynamic-reconfigure=1.7.3-1focal.20220519.084355 ros-noetic-nav-msgs=1.13.1-1focal.20210423.225233 ros-noetic-rosout=1.15.14-1focal.20220106.233651 ros-noetic-roslaunch=1.15.14-1focal.20220106.233833 ros-noetic-rostest=1.15.14-1focal.20220106.233954 ros-noetic-actionlib=1.13.2-1focal.20220106.235021 ros-noetic-realtime-tools=1.16.1-1focal.20220106.235327 ros-noetic-message-filters=1.15.14-1focal.20220106.234151 ros-noetic-rostopic=1.15.14-1focal.20220106.234801 ros-noetic-rosnode=1.15.14-1focal.20220106.234935 ros-noetic-roswtf=1.15.14-1focal.20220106.235010 ros-noetic-sensor-msgs=1.13.1-1focal.20220107.001034 ros-noetic-tf2-msgs=0.7.5-1focal.20210423.225302 ros-noetic-tf2=0.7.5-1focal.20210423.225547 ros-noetic-tf2-py=0.7.5-1focal.20220107.000244 ros-noetic-tf2-ros=0.7.5-1focal.20220107.000508 ros-noetic-tf=1.13.2-1focal.20220107.001704 ros-noetic-rosconsole-bridge=0.5.4-1focal.20210727.062632 ros-noetic-urdf=1.13.2-1focal.20220106.235206 ros-noetic-diff-drive-controller=0.20.0-1focal.20220519.091305 ros-noetic-ackermann-steering-controller=0.20.0-1focal.20220519.094919 ros-noetic-actionlib-tutorials=0.2.0-1focal.20220106.235301 ros-noetic-diagnostic-msgs=1.13.1-1focal.20210423.223644 ros-noetic-diagnostic-updater=1.11.0-1focal.20220106.234234 ros-noetic-amcl=1.17.2-1focal.20220621.180823 ros-noetic-async-web-server-cpp=1.0.3-1focal.20220107.000630 ros-noetic-audio-common-msgs=0.3.15-1focal.20220829.220605 ros-noetic-laser-geometry=1.6.7-1focal.20220107.002427 ros-noetic-map-msgs=1.14.1-1focal.20220107.004909 ros-noetic-visualization-msgs=1.13.1-1focal.20210423.224023 ros-noetic-voxel-grid=1.17.2-1focal.20220621.180435 ros-noetic-costmap-2d=1.17.2-1focal.20220621.180826 ros-noetic-nav-core=1.17.2-1focal.20220621.181513 ros-noetic-base-local-planner=1.17.2-1focal.20220621.181823 ros-noetic-bond=1.8.6-1focal.20210423.223553 ros-noetic-bondcpp=1.8.6-1focal.20220106.234115 ros-noetic-bondpy=1.8.6-1focal.20220107.000248 ros-noetic-bond-core=1.8.6-1focal.20220107.000920 ros-noetic-cv-bridge=1.16.1-1focal.20220906.152322 ros-noetic-image-geometry=1.16.1-1focal.20220906.152439 ros-noetic-camera-calibration=1.16.0-1focal.20220906.154018 ros-noetic-camera-calibration-parsers=1.12.0-1focal.20220107.001835 ros-noetic-image-transport=1.12.0-1focal.20220107.001857 ros-noetic-camera-info-manager=1.12.0-1focal.20220107.003151 ros-noetic-nodelet=1.10.2-1focal.20220106.234419 ros-noetic-capabilities=0.3.1-1focal.20220107.000455 ros-noetic-carrot-planner=1.17.2-1focal.20220621.182611 ros-noetic-resource-retriever=1.12.7-1focal.20211214.164815 ros-noetic-shape-msgs=1.13.1-1focal.20210423.224003 ros-noetic-geometric-shapes=0.7.3-1focal.20220514.015445 ros-noetic-urdfdom-py=0.4.6-1focal.20220107.000752 ros-noetic-srdfdom=0.6.3-1focal.20220201.004735 ros-noetic-kdl-parser=1.14.2-1focal.20220413.173353 ros-noetic-object-recognition-msgs=0.4.2-1focal.20220107.004954 ros-noetic-octomap-msgs=0.3.5-1focal.20210423.223941 ros-noetic-moveit-msgs=0.11.2-1focal.20220107.005220 ros-noetic-tf2-eigen=0.7.5-1focal.20210423.225948 ros-noetic-tf2-geometry-msgs=0.7.5-1focal.20220107.000842 ros-noetic-moveit-core=1.1.9-1focal.20220815.145341 ros-noetic-chomp-motion-planner=1.1.9-1focal.20220815.151800 ros-noetic-clear-costmap-recovery=1.17.2-1focal.20220621.181825 ros-noetic-stereo-msgs=1.13.1-1focal.20220107.005312 ros-noetic-common-msgs=1.13.1-1focal.20220107.010031 ros-noetic-nodelet-tutorial-math=0.2.0-1focal.20220106.234836 ros-noetic-pluginlib-tutorials=0.2.0-1focal.20220106.235108 ros-noetic-turtlesim=0.10.2-1focal.20220106.234424 ros-noetic-turtle-actionlib=0.2.0-1focal.20220106.235404 ros-noetic-common-tutorials=0.2.0-1focal.20220107.002300 ros-noetic-compressed-depth-image-transport=1.14.0-1focal.20220906.154115 ros-noetic-compressed-image-transport=1.14.0-1focal.20220906.153842 ros-noetic-control-toolbox=1.19.0-1focal.20220519.091120 ros-noetic-controller-manager-msgs=0.19.5-1focal.20220107.000302 ros-noetic-controller-manager=0.19.5-1focal.20220107.000501 ros-noetic-costmap-converter=0.0.13-1focal.20220906.152651 ros-noetic-ddynamic-reconfigure=0.3.2-1focal.20220519.092505 ros-noetic-eigen-conversions=1.13.2-1focal.20210423.223900 ros-noetic-depth-image-proc=1.16.0-1focal.20220906.153241 ros-noetic-turtle-tf=0.2.3-1focal.20220107.003050 ros-noetic-turtle-tf2=0.2.3-1focal.20220107.001151 ros-noetic-geometry-tutorials=0.2.3-1focal.20220107.011515 ros-noetic-joint-state-publisher=1.15.1-1focal.20220218.093002 ros-noetic-python-qt-binding=0.4.4-1focal.20210726.192424 ros-noetic-joint-state-publisher-gui=1.15.1-1focal.20220218.093511 ros-noetic-diagnostic-aggregator=1.11.0-1focal.20220107.000450 ros-noetic-diagnostic-analysis=1.11.0-1focal.20220107.000846 ros-noetic-diagnostic-common-diagnostics=1.11.0-1focal.20220107.003636 ros-noetic-self-test=1.11.0-1focal.20220106.234521 ros-noetic-diagnostics=1.11.0-1focal.20220107.003926 ros-noetic-smach-msgs=2.5.0-1focal.20210423.224149 ros-noetic-smach-ros=2.5.0-1focal.20220107.000235 ros-noetic-executive-smach=2.5.0-1focal.20220107.004327 ros-noetic-filters=1.9.2-1focal.20220512.124835 ros-noetic-kdl-conversions=1.13.2-1focal.20210423.223910 ros-noetic-tf-conversions=1.13.2-1focal.20220107.012308 ros-noetic-geometry=1.13.2-1focal.20220107.012748 ros-noetic-tf2-kdl=0.7.5-1focal.20220107.000843 ros-noetic-robot-state-publisher=1.15.2-1focal.20220413.174117 ros-noetic-nodelet-topic-tools=1.10.2-1focal.20220519.092216 ros-noetic-nodelet-core=1.10.2-1focal.20220519.095817 ros-noetic-mk=1.15.8-1focal.20210726.192420 ros-noetic-roslang=1.15.8-1focal.20210726.192150 ros-noetic-ros=1.15.8-1focal.20210727.062118 ros-noetic-roslisp=1.9.24-1focal.20210726.192430 ros-noetic-ros-comm=1.15.14-1focal.20220106.235155 ros-noetic-ros-core=1.5.0-1focal.20220107.010105 ros-noetic-ros-base=1.5.0-1focal.20220519.095901 ros-noetic-xacro=1.14.13-1focal.20220212.160007 ros-noetic-robot=1.5.0-1focal.20220519.102310 ros-noetic-roscpp-tutorials=0.10.2-1focal.20220106.235817 ros-noetic-rospy-tutorials=0.10.2-1focal.20220107.000622 ros-noetic-ros-tutorials=0.10.2-1focal.20220107.001106 ros-noetic-interactive-markers=1.12.0-1focal.20220107.001131 ros-noetic-rviz=1.14.19-1focal.20220815.135636 ros-noetic-urdf-tutorial=0.5.0-1focal.20220815.145010 ros-noetic-interactive-marker-tutorials=0.11.0-1focal.20220107.002345 ros-noetic-librviz-tutorial=0.11.0-1focal.20220815.144408 ros-noetic-rviz-plugin-tutorials=0.11.0-1focal.20220815.144706 ros-noetic-rviz-python-tutorial=0.11.0-1focal.20220815.144829 ros-noetic-visualization-marker-tutorials=0.11.0-1focal.20220106.234737 ros-noetic-visualization-tutorials=0.11.0-1focal.20220815.145402 ros-noetic-qt-gui=0.4.2-1focal.20210726.192753 ros-noetic-rqt-gui=0.5.3-1focal.20220328.224533 ros-noetic-rqt-gui-py=0.5.3-1focal.20220328.225040 ros-noetic-rqt-logger-level=0.4.11-1focal.20220328.225328 ros-noetic-rqt-py-common=0.5.3-1focal.20220328.224538 ros-noetic-rqt-console=0.4.11-1focal.20220328.225357 ros-noetic-rqt-msg=0.4.10-1focal.20220328.225436 ros-noetic-rqt-action=0.4.9-1focal.20220328.225504 ros-noetic-rqt-bag=0.5.1-1focal.20220328.225616 ros-noetic-qt-gui-py-common=0.4.2-1focal.20210726.192821 ros-noetic-rqt-plot=0.4.13-2focal.20220328.225111 ros-noetic-rqt-bag-plugins=0.5.1-1focal.20220328.225810 ros-noetic-qt-dotgraph=0.4.2-1focal.20210726.192724 ros-noetic-rqt-graph=0.4.14-1focal.20220328.225326 ros-noetic-rqt-dep=0.4.12-1focal.20220328.225604 ros-noetic-qt-gui-cpp=0.4.2-1focal.20210727.063105 ros-noetic-rqt-gui-cpp=0.5.3-1focal.20220328.224450 ros-noetic-rqt-image-view=0.4.16-1focal.20220906.153817 ros-noetic-rqt-launch=0.4.9-1focal.20220328.225434 ros-noetic-rqt-publisher=0.4.10-1focal.20220328.225218 ros-noetic-rqt-py-console=0.4.10-1focal.20220328.225605 ros-noetic-rqt-reconfigure=0.5.5-1focal.20220519.091134 ros-noetic-rqt-service-caller=0.4.10-1focal.20220328.225220 ros-noetic-rqt-shell=0.4.11-1focal.20220328.225349 ros-noetic-rqt-srv=0.4.9-1focal.20220328.225517 ros-noetic-rqt-top=0.4.10-1focal.20220328.225430 ros-noetic-rqt-topic=0.4.13-1focal.20220328.225437 ros-noetic-rqt-web=0.4.10-1focal.20220328.225602 ros-noetic-rqt-common-plugins=0.4.9-1focal.20220906.160735 ros-noetic-rqt-moveit=0.5.10-1focal.20220328.225504 ros-noetic-rqt-nav-view=0.5.7-1focal.20220328.225152 ros-noetic-rqt-pose-view=0.5.11-1focal.20220328.225119 ros-noetic-rqt-robot-monitor=0.5.14-1focal.20220328.225806 ros-noetic-rqt-robot-dashboard=0.5.8-1focal.20220328.225954 ros-noetic-rqt-robot-steering=0.5.12-1focal.20220328.225602 ros-noetic-rqt-runtime-monitor=0.5.9-1focal.20220328.225559 ros-noetic-rqt-rviz=0.7.0-1focal.20220815.144625 ros-noetic-rqt-tf-tree=0.6.3-1focal.20220331.120200 ros-noetic-rqt-robot-plugins=0.5.8-1focal.20220815.145413 ros-noetic-viz=1.5.0-1focal.20220906.161859 ros-noetic-desktop=1.5.0-1focal.20220906.162158 ros-noetic-polled-camera=1.12.0-1focal.20220107.003238 ros-noetic-image-common=1.12.0-1focal.20220107.012243 ros-noetic-image-proc=1.16.0-1focal.20220906.153713 ros-noetic-image-publisher=1.16.0-1focal.20220906.153738 ros-noetic-image-rotate=1.16.0-1focal.20220906.152658 ros-noetic-image-view=1.16.0-1focal.20220906.153859 ros-noetic-stereo-image-proc=1.16.0-1focal.20220906.154208 ros-noetic-image-pipeline=1.16.0-1focal.20220906.160026 ros-noetic-theora-image-transport=1.14.0-1focal.20220906.153933 ros-noetic-image-transport-plugins=1.14.0-1focal.20220906.160731 ros-noetic-laser-assembler=1.7.8-1focal.20220512.130035 ros-noetic-laser-filters=1.9.0-1focal.20220519.091721 ros-noetic-laser-pipeline=1.6.4-1focal.20220519.095620 ros-noetic-pcl-msgs=0.3.0-1focal.20220107.005305 ros-noetic-pcl-conversions=1.7.4-1focal.20220216.095102 ros-noetic-pcl-ros=1.7.4-1focal.20220520.061642 ros-noetic-perception-pcl=1.7.4-1focal.20220520.064711 ros-noetic-vision-opencv=1.16.1-1focal.20220906.153138 ros-noetic-perception=1.5.0-1focal.20220906.160811 ros-noetic-gazebo-msgs=2.9.2-1focal.20220107.005048 ros-noetic-gazebo-ros=2.9.2-1focal.20220519.091903 ros-noetic-gazebo-plugins=2.9.2-1focal.20220906.152700 ros-noetic-gazebo-ros-pkgs=2.9.2-1focal.20220906.161250 ros-noetic-stage-ros=1.8.0-1focal.20220107.003039 ros-noetic-simulators=1.5.0-1focal.20220906.161851 ros-noetic-joint-limits-interface=0.19.5-1focal.20220106.235926 ros-noetic-transmission-interface=0.19.5-1focal.20220106.235904 ros-noetic-gazebo-ros-control=2.9.2-1focal.20220519.094658 ros-noetic-joint-state-controller=0.20.0-1focal.20220512.124640 ros-noetic-forward-command-controller=0.20.0-1focal.20220512.124630 ros-noetic-position-controllers=0.20.0-1focal.20220512.124837 ros-noetic-urdf-sim-tutorial=0.5.1-1focal.20220815.145156 ros-noetic-desktop-full=1.5.0-1focal.20220906.162231 ros-noetic-dwa-local-planner=1.17.2-1focal.20220621.182243 ros-noetic-effort-controllers=0.20.0-1focal.20220519.094657 ros-noetic-fake-localization=1.17.2-1focal.20220621.180410 ros-noetic-force-torque-sensor-controller=0.20.0-1focal.20220512.124628 ros-noetic-franka-description=0.10.0-1focal.20220908.212816 ros-noetic-uuid-msgs=1.0.6-1focal.20210423.224434 ros-noetic-geographic-msgs=0.5.6-1focal.20210605.000032 ros-noetic-navfn=1.17.2-1focal.20220621.182116 ros-noetic-global-planner=1.17.2-1focal.20220621.182512 ros-noetic-gmapping=1.4.2-1focal.20220107.002506 ros-noetic-graph-msgs=0.1.0-2focal.20210423.223901 ros-noetic-grid-map-cv=1.6.4-1focal.20220906.154107 ros-noetic-grid-map-msgs=1.6.4-1focal.20220106.234334 ros-noetic-grid-map-ros=1.6.4-1focal.20220906.154457 ros-noetic-grid-map-rviz-plugin=1.6.4-1focal.20220906.160950 ros-noetic-gripper-action-controller=0.20.0-1focal.20220519.094627 ros-noetic-hector-map-tools=0.5.2-4focal.20210423.230125 ros-noetic-hector-compressed-map-transport=0.5.2-4focal.20220906.153759 ros-noetic-hector-gazebo-plugins=0.5.4-1focal.20220519.092542 ros-noetic-hector-nav-msgs=0.5.2-4focal.20210423.230130 ros-noetic-hector-geotiff=0.5.2-4focal.20220106.233828 ros-noetic-hector-geotiff-plugins=0.5.2-4focal.20220107.000855 ros-noetic-hector-trajectory-server=0.5.2-4focal.20220107.002646 ros-noetic-hector-geotiff-launch=0.5.2-4focal.20220107.003903 ros-noetic-hector-imu-attitude-to-tf=0.5.2-4focal.20220107.002542 ros-noetic-hector-marker-drawing=0.5.2-4focal.20220106.234436 ros-noetic-hector-map-server=0.5.2-4focal.20220107.002618 ros-noetic-hector-mapping=0.5.2-4focal.20220107.002900 ros-noetic-hector-slam-launch=0.5.2-4focal.20220815.144625 ros-noetic-hector-slam=0.5.2-4focal.20220906.160751 ros-noetic-hls-lfcd-lds-driver=1.1.2-1focal.20220107.001841 ros-noetic-hpp-fcl=2.1.2-1focal.20220912.181902 ros-noetic-imu-filter-madgwick=1.2.5-1focal.20220823.164534 ros-noetic-imu-sensor-controller=0.20.0-1focal.20220512.125128 ros-noetic-tf2-sensor-msgs=0.7.5-1focal.20220107.002056 ros-noetic-imu-transformer=0.3.0-2focal.20220107.002340 ros-noetic-interactive-marker-twist-server=1.2.2-1focal.20220107.002353 ros-noetic-joint-trajectory-controller=0.20.0-1focal.20220519.094643 ros-noetic-joy=1.15.1-1focal.20220107.001731 ros-noetic-teleop-tools-msgs=0.4.0-1focal.20210423.225515 ros-noetic-joy-teleop=0.4.0-1focal.20220107.002043 ros-noetic-jsk-footstep-msgs=4.3.2-1focal.20210423.225200 ros-noetic-jsk-recognition-msgs=1.2.15-1focal.20220107.005530 ros-noetic-laser-ortho-projector=0.3.3-1focal.20220520.063804 ros-noetic-laser-scan-matcher=0.3.3-1focal.20220520.064608 ros-noetic-laser-scan-sparsifier=0.3.3-1focal.20220107.001631 ros-noetic-laser-scan-splitter=0.3.3-1focal.20220107.001646 ros-noetic-libmavconn=1.13.0-1focal.20220810.202815 ros-noetic-lms1xx=0.3.0-2focal.20220107.001900 ros-noetic-map-server=1.17.2-1focal.20220621.180409 ros-noetic-mavros-msgs=1.13.0-1focal.20220113.084554 ros-noetic-mavros=1.13.0-1focal.20220810.203123 ros-noetic-mbf-abstract-core=0.4.0-1focal.20211026.191919 ros-noetic-mbf-utility=0.4.0-1focal.20220107.002405 ros-noetic-mbf-costmap-core=0.4.0-1focal.20220621.181831 ros-noetic-mbf-msgs=0.4.0-1focal.20211026.191913 ros-noetic-microstrain-3dmgx2-imu=1.5.13-1focal.20220107.002715 ros-noetic-move-base-msgs=1.14.1-1focal.20210423.225212 ros-noetic-rotate-recovery=1.17.2-1focal.20220621.182615 ros-noetic-move-base=1.17.2-1focal.20220621.183020 ros-noetic-move-slow-and-clear=1.17.2-1focal.20220621.182127 ros-noetic-moveit-ros-occupancy-map-monitor=1.1.9-1focal.20220815.151800 ros-noetic-moveit-ros-planning=1.1.9-1focal.20220815.152032 ros-noetic-warehouse-ros=0.9.5-1focal.20220510.081837 ros-noetic-moveit-ros-warehouse=1.1.9-1focal.20220815.153512 ros-noetic-moveit-kinematics=1.1.9-1focal.20220815.154002 ros-noetic-moveit-ros-move-group=1.1.9-1focal.20220815.154251 ros-noetic-moveit-ros-manipulation=1.1.9-1focal.20220815.155527 ros-noetic-moveit-ros-planning-interface=1.1.9-1focal.20220912.182033 ros-noetic-moveit-commander=1.1.9-1focal.20220912.182958 ros-noetic-moveit-planners-chomp=1.1.9-1focal.20220912.183113 ros-noetic-moveit-planners-ompl=1.1.9-1focal.20220815.154137 ros-noetic-pilz-industrial-motion-planner=1.1.9-1focal.20220912.183628 ros-noetic-moveit-planners=1.1.9-1focal.20220912.184813 ros-noetic-moveit-fake-controller-manager=1.1.9-1focal.20220815.153741 ros-noetic-moveit-simple-controller-manager=1.1.9-1focal.20220815.151800 ros-noetic-moveit-ros-control-interface=1.1.9-1focal.20220815.152436 ros-noetic-moveit-plugins=1.1.9-1focal.20220815.154010 ros-noetic-moveit-ros-benchmarks=1.1.9-1focal.20220815.154415 ros-noetic-moveit-ros-perception=1.1.9-1focal.20220906.152649 ros-noetic-moveit-ros-robot-interaction=1.1.9-1focal.20220815.153511 ros-noetic-moveit-ros-visualization=1.1.9-1focal.20220912.183000 ros-noetic-moveit-ros=1.1.9-1focal.20220912.184702 ros-noetic-moveit-setup-assistant=1.1.9-1focal.20220912.184642 ros-noetic-moveit=1.1.9-1focal.20220912.185737 ros-noetic-navigation=1.17.2-1focal.20220621.183641 ros-noetic-ncd-parser=0.3.3-1focal.20220107.002746 ros-noetic-nmea-msgs=1.1.0-1focal.20210423.223822 ros-noetic-nmea-comms=1.2.0-3focal.20220106.234629 ros-noetic-nmea-navsat-driver=0.6.1-2focal.20220107.003644 ros-noetic-octomap-ros=0.4.1-1focal.20220514.015020 ros-noetic-pinocchio=2.6.9-2focal.20220912.185923 ros-noetic-pointcloud-to-laserscan=1.4.1-1focal.20220107.002833 ros-noetic-pointgrey-camera-description=0.15.1-1focal.20220413.175145 ros-noetic-polar-scan-matcher=0.3.3-1focal.20220107.003005 ros-noetic-realsense2-camera=2.3.2-1focal.20220906.153355 ros-noetic-realsense2-description=2.3.2-1focal.20220212.161322 ros-noetic-rgbd-launch=2.3.0-1focal.20220906.160418 ros-noetic-robot-localization=2.7.4-1focal.20220729.124845 ros-noetic-robot-pose-ekf=1.15.0-2focal.20220107.003015 ros-noetic-robot-self-filter=0.1.32-1focal.20220520.064643 ros-noetic-robot-upstart=0.4.2-1focal.20220217.090727 ros-noetic-velocity-controllers=0.20.0-1focal.20220519.094749 ros-noetic-ros-controllers=0.20.0-1focal.20220519.095236 ros-noetic-ros-numpy=0.0.5-2focal.20220107.003648 ros-noetic-rosbridge-library=0.11.14-1focal.20220615.161520 ros-noetic-rosapi=0.11.14-1focal.20220615.161853 ros-noetic-rosauth=1.0.1-1focal.20220106.234716 ros-noetic-rosbridge-msgs=0.11.14-1focal.20220615.161535 ros-noetic-rosbridge-server=0.11.14-1focal.20220615.161932 ros-noetic-rosdoc-lite=0.2.10-1focal.20210423.222829 ros-noetic-rosparam-shortcuts=0.4.0-1focal.20220106.234044 ros-noetic-rospy-message-converter=0.5.9-1focal.20220912.175101 ros-noetic-rosserial-msgs=0.9.2-1focal.20210423.223234 ros-noetic-rosserial-python=0.9.2-1focal.20220107.000351 ros-noetic-variant-msgs=0.1.6-1focal.20210423.224434 ros-noetic-variant-topic-tools=0.1.6-1focal.20220106.234434 ros-noetic-rqt-multiplot=0.0.12-1focal.20220328.224855 ros-noetic-rviz-imu-plugin=1.2.5-1focal.20220823.164227 ros-noetic-rviz-visual-tools=3.9.1-1focal.20220815.145126 ros-noetic-scan-to-cloud-converter=0.3.3-1focal.20220520.064730 ros-noetic-scan-tools=0.3.3-1focal.20220520.065501 ros-noetic-sick-tim=0.0.17-1focal.20220519.091711 ros-noetic-smach-viewer=4.0.1-1focal.20220906.152653 ros-noetic-sound-play=0.3.15-1focal.20220829.221132 ros-noetic-spacenav-node=1.15.1-1focal.20220107.001953 ros-noetic-teb-local-planner=0.9.1-1focal.20220906.160038 ros-noetic-teleop-twist-joy=0.1.3-1focal.20220107.002011 ros-noetic-teleop-twist-keyboard=1.0.0-1focal.20220107.000515 ros-noetic-tf2-tools=0.7.5-1focal.20220107.004507 ros-noetic-tf2-web-republisher=0.3.2-3focal.20220107.002444 ros-noetic-turtlebot3-msgs=1.0.1-1focal.20210423.224157 ros-noetic-twist-mux-msgs=2.1.0-1focal.20220107.004036 ros-noetic-twist-mux=3.1.2-1focal.20220819.064426 ros-noetic-velodyne-description=1.0.12-2focal.20220212.161113 ros-noetic-velodyne-gazebo-plugins=1.0.12-2focal.20220519.100106 ros-noetic-web-video-server=0.2.2-1focal.20220906.154245

    opened by akmandor 5
  • How to

    How to "update" the robot observation for the MPC solver by using the robot's measured state info?

    Dear legged robotics group,

    thanks for providing the OCS2.

    Recently, we are going to use OCS2 to generate an online walking trajectory for Anymal C and simulate it in the RaiSim. We have developed our WBC to track the reference trajectory. At the very beginning, we employed the MPC solver of OCS2 only as a pure trajectory generator (meaning there was no robot's state feedback obtained from RaiSim into the MPC). But then, we realized that there was a drift in the z-direction, as mentioned in #24. So we tried to find the solution.

    During figuring out a solution, we found that #23 mentioned that we could add some feedback terms to the MPC. Moreover, paper "A Unified MPC Framework for Whole-Body Dynamic Locomotion and Manipulation" also mentioned that we could obtain the state information from the robot and insert it into the SLQ-MPC solver, as shown in figure 3. Therefore, we tried to obtain the state from RaiSim and insert it into the MPC solver.

    We've found that there is a user-defined modification function interface in file "ocs2_ros_interface/src/mrt/MRT_ROS_Dummy_Loop.cpp". In my opinion, the "observation_" term should be the real robot state that is the input for the MPC. We replaced the "observation_" with the state and input vector that gathered from the anymal in RaiSim. The RaiSim and WBC were ruining at 1kHz, mrtDesiredFrequency was 1khz, and mpcDesiredFrequency was -1 Hz (which was 250Hz in my pc). We tried replacing the "observation_" with measured data in 1kHz. It turned out that even though I set the target position, the robot was standing still on the ground without any motion at first, then it would drift, as shown below:

    I thought maybe we were updating the "observation_" too frequently, so I set the updating frequency to 1Hz. But in this way, the robot in rviz (on the left hand side) will “flash” from one place to the other, which will again make the robot in RaiSim unstable, as shown here: final_61b9fb2e64bdc400c8ab2751_866206

    Of course, we have tried different mrtDesiredFrequency, mpcDesiredFrequency and "observation_" updating frequency, but the robot was still unstable. We started to consider that maybe the way we used the measured data for the MPC solver was not correct, because by doing our way, the desired state and input vector seems not continuous, which will, in turn, cause the unstable tracking performance. And also, if we update the "observation_" too frequently, then the generated reference trajectory is too close to the current robot state after each time's MPC update, which won't lead the robot to move. So I was wondering:

    1. How to use the robot's measured data for the MPC solver properly?
    2. How should we solve the drift problem in z-direction if we want to use the MPC as a pure trajectory planner (without state feedback)?

    Many thanks

    Best Shengzhi

    opened by edward9503 5
  • Interfacing OCS2 with CoppeliaSim and other physical engine based simulations

    Interfacing OCS2 with CoppeliaSim and other physical engine based simulations

    While the provided dummy tests are very useful for studying mpc policy behaviors and weight tuning, they aren't rigorous validations since the generated states are based on the same dynamic models. Currently, we are trying to interface OCS2 with CoppeliaSim which so happens to simulate our robot behaviors well. The naive thought was to simply replace dummy_test with CoppeliaSim's ROS interface (this node will publish /mpc_observation and subscribe to /mpc_policy). We soon realized that by excluding dummy_test node, we also disable MRT ROS interface, which supposes to run along side with MPC (handling reset and timing control). Therefore, we wonder:

    • Is MRT interface absolutely necessary or it can be replaced if a third party robot simulator handles the time control? (MPC computes traj based on simulation time)
    • How do we enable state-based and feedback policy setting for the MPC solver and MRT? What are the pros and cons compared to time-based?
    • Is it possible to provide a DummyXXbotNode.cpp or a MRT_ROS_Interface.cpp temple that allows people to take state observations from other ROS node (i.e., CoppeliaSim) while still having MRT to regulate the timing?

    (Sorry, just started using OCS2, I hope the questions make sense. )

    opened by mszuyx 5
  • Legged robot raisim example is unstable

    Legged robot raisim example is unstable


    when running the legged_robot_raisim example the pose of the robot immediately changes, the center of mass moves slightly in the x direction and contact forces of the front legs change the orientation. The robot is in some kind of an unstable state and the optimal forces oscillate slightly. After a while, even without any gait command, the right hind leg starts to float in the air and the computation crushes.

    Is this a bug or is it due to the use of raisim simulator on a simplified model?

    This is the pose of the robot after 2 seconds of the simulation. No gait commanded, no trajectory commanded.


    opened by Kate88L 4
  • External collision (obstacle) avoidance implementation

    External collision (obstacle) avoidance implementation

    Is there any available (in ROS Noetic) obstacle avoidance implementation that I can run as an example? I know that leggedrobotics/perceptive_mpc has that feature but it is not compiling in ROS Noetic and it seems like it is outdated after the recent updates on OCS2. I would appreciate if you can guide me on the implementation or point to any branch or repository that has the feature within the OCS2 framework.

    opened by akmandor 4
  • How to properly enable and use

    How to properly enable and use "targetTrajectoriesSubscriber_"?

    We are trying to interface OCS2 MPC with some HMIs to dynamically set the target / reference for the MPC to track. We are currently playing around the cart pole example (cart pole dynamic is simulated in a third party simulator CoppeliaSim).

    Goal: The objective is that, a separate ros node will publish a "ocs2_msgs::mpc_target_trajectories" message, such that if the user push a joystick, that cart-pole system will try to follow the user's command and move along the x direction while keeping the pole balanced.

    Progress: We take the ballbot example as our reference while enabling the "targetTrajectoriesSubscriber_". After adding the following lines in the MpcNode.cpp:

      // ROS ReferenceManager
      std::shared_ptr<ocs2::RosReferenceManager> rosReferenceManagerPtr(
          new ocs2::RosReferenceManager(robotName, PurePlanarInterface.getReferenceManagerPtr()));
      // MPC
      ocs2::MPC_DDP mpc(PurePlanarInterface.mpcSettings(), PurePlanarInterface.ddpSettings(), PurePlanarInterface.getRollout(),
                        PurePlanarInterface.getOptimalControlProblem(), PurePlanarInterface.getInitializer());

    The MPC node seems to subscribe to the "XX_mpc_target" topic: rosgraph

    And the cart-pole system does try to follow the target state slightly / slowly... https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=FfF7X0wFsmE In this video, you will see two cart-pole systems. The green and slightly transparent one indicates the reference states from the "XX_mpc_policy" topic. While moving the target does effect the position of the cart, the reference states indicate the cart always want to go back to the origin.

    Questions: Comparing the task.info files between cart-pole and ballbot, we realize there are more to it:

    1. What's the difference between Q and Q_f? (the Q_f for ballbot are all zeros, while the Q for cart-pole are all zeros)
    2. We suspect the "x_final" setting in the cart-pole's task.info is what causes the cart to always want to go back to the origin. (we notice that this setting does not exist in the ballbot's task.info) If so, what should we do about it? (Simply excluding it only cause the cart-pole to be unstable) And why is it not included in the ballbot example?
    3. How fast can we send the "XX_mpc_target" topic? In the ballbot example, this topic is sent only when there is a new command line entry occurs. If we update / send this topic too fast, will it cause the MPC solver to be unstable? Or it is fine as long as the delta pose is reasonably bounded?

    Thank you and looking forward to hearing from you! : )

    opened by mszuyx 4
  • The maximum number of successive solution rejections has been reached for Cassie integration

    The maximum number of successive solution rejections has been reached for Cassie integration


    We are trying to integrate bipedal robot Cassie into Ocs2 based on the legged robot example of ANYmal. We have some issues with Cassie being able to stand with convergence and the solver gives the error below: image

    Our setup, the center of mass and the locations of four support/contact points of the feet with nominal contact forces are shown below: image


    The center of mass is within the support polygon while the error is given. We tried both single body centroidal dynamics and full body centroidal dynamics. We tried to tune the cost coefficients and removed some constraint conditions to relax the optimization. None of them worked.

    We have been stuck here for a few weeks. Any suggestions to fix this issue from the algorithmic point of view? Thank you very much!

    opened by wchengh2010 4
  • DDP controller does not generate a stable rollout.

    DDP controller does not generate a stable rollout.

    Describe the bug what(): DDP controller does not generate a stable rollout.

    To Reproduce Steps to reproduce the behavior: I basically modified the mobile manipulator example by changing the UR robotics arm to a Kinova robotics arm, and I have ignored the constraints from the self collision

    Expected behavior The mobile manipulator with kinova arm should converge its end-effector to the interactive marker.

    Screenshots If applicable, add screenshots to help explain your problem. ocs2_ddp_unstable_rollout


    I would like to understand from the algorithmic aspect why this error occurs, thanks for any suggestions or guidance!

    opened by mustang66ytz 4
  • issue defining desired twist trajectorie in a mpc_target_trajectories message

    issue defining desired twist trajectorie in a mpc_target_trajectories message

    Hi all,

    I am using OCS2 to control an OMAV+Delta arm with a velocity driven kinematic model.

    I am trying to pass a mpc_target_trajectories message to the mpc in order to follow a reference trajectory where each point represents a desired end-effector pose and twist at a desired time instance. I successfully defined the desired pose by setting the value of the stateTrajectory to the desired position and quaternion, without having to care about the value of the robot state vector. The size of the stateTrajectory value (7) is of course different from the size of the robot state vector (15). At the moment of writing, I have a problem with the definition of the desired twist. Following the fact that I am controlling the robot with velocity inputs and the way I defined the stateTrajectoy, I tried to define the inputTrajectory as the desired linear and angular velocity of the end-effector. I realized that this approach always created the following error: image It works fine if I define the inputTrajectory value as a vector of input size full of zeros but the results are not satisfying as it always stops at each point. As I have a redundant system, I have no idea what the desired input trajectories should be as they should be the result of the mpc optimization.

    How am I able to define desired end-effector twists in the mpc_target_trajectories message?

    Thank you in advance for your help!


    opened by alme96 3
  • Integration terminated since the maximum number of function calls is reached

    Integration terminated since the maximum number of function calls is reached


    On Iteration 0 of SLQ solver, I get an exception from the integrator (ODE45_OCS2):

    Integration terminated since the maximum number of function calls is reached. State at termination time -0.928457

    I initialized the trajectory as

        ocs2::SystemObservation initObservation;
        initObservation.state = interface.initialState;
        initObservation.input = ocs2::vector_t::Zero(robo::INPUT_DIM);
        initObservation.mode = 0;
        // Initial command
        ocs2::TargetTrajectories initTargetTrajectories(
            {0.0}, {initObservation.state}, {initObservation.input});
        // run dummy
        leggedRobotDummySimulator.run(initObservation, initTargetTrajectories);

    and the mpc node as

        robo::RobotInterface interface(taskFilePath, targetTrajectoryFilePath);
        ros::init(argc, argv, interface.model.name);
        ros::NodeHandle nodeHandle;
        std::shared_ptr<ocs2::RosReferenceManager> rosReferenceManagerPtr(
            new ocs2::RosReferenceManager(interface.model.name, interface.refManager));
        ocs2::MPC_DDP mpc(interface.mpcSetting, interface.ddpSetting,
                          interface.rollout, interface.ocp, interface.initializer);
        ocs2::MPC_ROS_Interface mpcNode(mpc, interface.model.name);

    The starting time and initial state are defined in the task.info file. I think it is trying to run iteration on the initial trajectory but have no idea about why it comes to this exception. I wrote the code for dynamics built from pinocchio and CppAD instead of using the provided pinocchio interfaces. Update After debugging for a while I found the exception is raised when SLQ integrateRiccatiEquationNominalTime calls integrateTimes. Update I tested the fullcentroidaldynamics version of the _leg

    ged robot_ example, and soon it becomes unstable. https://user-images.githubusercontent.com/56295370/152655845-19a45f25-f174-4710-b10a-bb3f68637009.mp4

    opened by xeonz1 3
  • Empty multiplier with preJumpStateEqualityLagrangian

    Empty multiplier with preJumpStateEqualityLagrangian

    Version: 11.0 Code:

    scalar_t MultidimensionalPenalty::getValue(scalar_t t, const vector_t& h, const vector_t* l) const {
      const auto numConstraints = h.rows();
      assert(penaltyPtrArray_.size() == 1 || penaltyPtrArray_.size() == numConstraints);
      scalar_t penalty = 0;
      for (size_t i = 0; i < numConstraints; i++) {
        const auto& penaltyTerm = (penaltyPtrArray_.size() == 1) ? penaltyPtrArray_[0] : penaltyPtrArray_[i];
        penalty += penaltyTerm->getValue(t, getMultiplier(l, i), h(i));
      return penalty;

    The getMultiplier triggered segmentation fault because l is an uninitialized empty vector. The problem occurs the first time the preJump constraint is active. The horizon is 1s, at 1s there is a mode switch, and the constraint is expected active at the switch.

    scalar_t getMultiplier(const vector_t* l, size_t ind) {
      return (l == nullptr) ? 0.0 : (*l)(ind);
    opened by xeonz1 2
  • How to tune cost weights matrix online?

    How to tune cost weights matrix online?

    Hi, this is an amazing project. I want to deploy this project to our robot, and need to tune the matrix Q,R when mpc is running. However, I don't know how to solve this problem. Could you give me some advices? Thanks!

    opened by skywoodsz 0
  • Is frame of generalized velocity correct?

    Is frame of generalized velocity correct?

    Hi all,

    I find that OCS2 use global or world frame as generalized velocity's reference, like:


    But, In https://github.com/stack-of-tasks/pinocchio/issues/1357, we need to use local or body frame as generalized velocity's reference. So which is correct? I'd appreciate it if you tell me this point.

    opened by matheecs 0
  • Run my own robot occur a problem

    Run my own robot occur a problem

    Hi, When I configured my robot using ocs2_legged_robot as an example, the following error occurred: image How should I define my input to ensure that the MPC runs successfully?

    opened by Zcyyy 0
  • PISOC implementation and example launch file

    PISOC implementation and example launch file

    Is the implementation of PISOC (Path integral stochastic optimal control) algorithm, presented in this paper, available in OCS2?

    • If yes, is there any ready-to-launch example that uses PISOC?
    • If there is no example but the implementation is working, could you provide some guidance how can the config file should be set up?
    opened by akmandor 0
  • Clarification questions on ocs2 observation state details!

    Clarification questions on ocs2 observation state details!

    I'm curious on ocs2 msg details here

    ;; Normalized Centroidal Momentum: [linear, angular] ;;
       (0,0)  0.0     ; vcom_x
       (1,0)  0.0     ; vcom_y
       (2,0)  0.0     ; vcom_z
       (3,0)  0.0     ; L_x / robotMass
       (4,0)  0.0     ; L_y / robotMass
       (5,0)  0.0     ; L_z / robotMass

    the comment on top of the message says Normalized Centroidal Momentum: [linear, angular] where as comments on the following lines state first three components are linear velocities and next three seem to be rotational velocities, rather than momentum? Another question is that rotational components are stated as L_x / robotMass which I'm assuming L_x represents rotational moment? but why is it divided by robotMass rather than inertia around x-axis?

    opened by sinaaghli 1
  • Question on deriving some of the partial derivatives between ocs2 state and pinocchio state

    Question on deriving some of the partial derivatives between ocs2 state and pinocchio state

    Hi ocs2 team.

    Thanks for open sourcing your repo. This is extremely helpful to the legged community! When reading the ocs2_centroidal_model, there are some parts that I cannot figure out by myself and hopefully can get some help from you guys. It's briefly discussed in #15 but more information will be helpful.

    In CentroidalModelPinocchioMapping.cpp, to create a mapping between the ocs2 state and pinocchio state, we need to get all the partial derivatives, but I'm not quite how you determine some of them. If we write down the centroidal dynamics as: image

    If we write the centroidal dynamics as an implicit function: image The differential is then: image

    Then if I understand correctly, ocs2 state $x$ and control $u$, pinocchio position $q$ and velocity $v$ are defined as: image To goal is to find the following jacobians: image

    By following the implicit differential theorem, some of the terms make sense, for example, if we wish to compute the partial $\frac{\partial{\dot{q}}_b}{\partial{q}_b}$, set $\text{d} {q}_b = {I}$, and all other differentials, except $\text{d} {\dot{q}}_b$, to ${0}$, and solve for $\text{d} {\dot{q}}_b$. The resulting expression is the desired analytical partial derivative. image similarly, image

    However, if we try to derive this one $\frac{\partial {\dot{q}}_j}{\partial {\bar{h}}_G}$: image It is not clear what the analytical expression for $\frac{\partial {\dot{q}}_j}{\partial {\bar{h}}_G}$ is from the above equation. However, it's clear that $\frac{\partial {\dot{q}}_j}{\partial {\bar{h}}_G} \neq {0}$. Similarly, the entire bottom row block of $\frac{\partial {v}}{\partial {x}}$ shouldn't be ${0}$, but left as ${0}$ here

    If we try another partial derivative, $\frac{\partial {q}_b}{\partial {q}_j}$: image

    Or $\frac{\partial {q}_j}{\partial {q}_b}$: image Again, similar to $\frac{\partial {\dot{q}}_j}{\partial {\bar{h}}_G}$, it's not clear what the analytical expression should be for $\frac{\partial {q}_j}{\partial {q}_b}$ given the relation derived in above equation.

    Is there anything I was missing in deriving these partial derivatives?

    Thanks a lot in advance.

    opened by zzhou387 0
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The Robotic Systems Lab investigates the development of machines and their intelligence to operate in rough and challenging environments.
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